The boat is composed of several elements (crew, keel, oars, tiller, etc.) that were made separately, then painted and assembled: it is currently possible that some elements were not placed back in their original location. The various parts of the structure were painted in ocher, brick red, white and black; the figures have tanned skin and dark hair, and wear a white loincloth.     The rounded keel with  raised stern was carved from a single block of wood, probably acacia wood like most similar examples. The eight rowers are seated with their backs directed to the bow, their hands on their knees: the oars were fastened to the gunwale (holes) and might have been inserted in the holes that are still visible in the hands of some of the rowers. The other two seated figures would have been co-pilots. The central mast supported the sails, while the other pole arranged vertically to the stern was used to fix the rudder(s). The man standing near the bow, holding an oar, may be the navigation assistant giving the pace to the rowers; the helmsman, who stood at the other end of the boat, next to the tiller, is now lost.     This model, which, unlike many surviving examples, shows a good artistic level, represents a travel boat similar to those which sailed on the Nile river: when traveling north, they would be going with the current, gaining even more speed with the rowers; when the ships were traveling south, they had the wind blowing in their direction and would use the sails.     The presence of such small-sized boats in Egyptian tombs can be traced back to the Middle Kingdom when the trend to replace the wall paintings in the  mastabas  (Old Kingdom) with models included in the funeral furniture was established: aside from ships, many three-dimensional wood items linked to contemporary artisanal (weaving, carpentry, gardening) or economic activities (bakery, brewery, butchery) were found. Like the painted scenes of the previous periods, these objects were intended to provide the deceased with the necessities for life in the next world: these models of boats, especially the travel boats, were also related to the biography of the owner and highlighted his important actions, which he continued after his death, such as the inspection of his properties, leisure boating or pilgrimages to various shrines.     CONDITION  Excellent condition; slightly faded paint in some areas; minor restorations and breaks (oar, helm, and sail)     PROVENANCE  Formerly, G. Willoughby collection (1866-1923); Ex- P. Vérité collection, Paris, 1920’s; thence by descent to the C. Vérité collection, France.     BIBLIOGRAPHY  BERMAN L. M., BOHAC K. J.,  Catalogue of Egyptian Art: The Cleveland Museum of Art , Manchester, VA, 1999, pp. 202 ff.   Egypte, Moments d’éternité , Mainz am Rhein, 1997, pp. 96-97.   Reflets du divin, Antiquités pharaoniques et classiques d’une collection privée , Geneva, 2002, pp. 89-91.  REISNER G. A.,  Models of Ships and Boats , Cairo, 1913.
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